(Since nearly every major European nation coveted some part of the Habsburg domains, their consent to the Pragmatic Sanction must be taken as nothing more than an act of convenience.) However, their marriage never happened as Beatrice went on … Francis II (German: Franz; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. - Biography of Maria Theresia, The World of the Habsburgs - Biography of Maria Theresa, Maria Theresa - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) [1] was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. He was initially trained for priesthood. was the last Holy Roman Emperor, and as Francis I was the first Emperor of Austria. Media in category "Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor" The following 41 files are in this category, out of 41 total. Repressing liberalism and reinstituting much of the power of the Roman Catholic church lost under Joseph II, Francis was nevertheless a patron of the arts and sciences, and he did not hesitate to introduce innovations, such as steamships on the Danube, or to show an interest in the development of railroads. The oldest surviving son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine Omissions? Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 2. His first act was to abandon his father's pacific policy by joining Frederick William II. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Hungary: Francis I: the reform generation. Again defeated by France (1799–1801), he elevated Austria to the status of an empire (1804) soon after Napoleon had made himself emperor of the French. Updates? It was sold misattributed as under Wencezlaus II. Maria Theresa led Austria through this and two other wars, preserving the bulk of Habsburg territory in the face of a series of militarily superior opponents. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. From the day she was born, Maria Theresa was one of the most important people in 18th-century Europe. Maria Theresa, archduchess of Austria and queen of Hungary and Bohemia (1740–80), wife and empress of the Holy Roman emperor Francis I, and mother of the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real power of those positions. Francis II (German: Franz II. Francis I (Francis Stephen; German: Franz Stefan; French: François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was the Duke of Lorraine and Bar (1729–1737), and later Grand Duke of Tuscany (1737–1765), who married Maria Theresa of Austria and became Holy Roman Emperor (1745–1765) and Archduke of Austria (1740–1765). Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (Spanish: María Luisa, German: Maria Ludovika) (24 November 1745 – 15 May 1792) was Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duchess of Tuscany as the spouse of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. Franz II would be the last Holy Roman Emperor. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The wedding was held on February 14, 1736. When its end sealed the loss of Silesia and left the monarchy with a mountain of debts, she became a champion of peace. Therefore, the crown had to eventually rest on young Francis’ head. Francis II (German: Franz II. The (secret) treaty between the Emperor and Francis was signed on May 4, 1736. (She was the last of the Catholic monarchs to close its establishments.) Maria Theresa’s father was the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI, and her mother was Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. In January 1737, the Spanish troops withdrew from Tuscany, and were replaced by 6,000 Austrians. When the elector Charles Albert of Bavaria—one of the princes who had joined Frederick in assaulting Habsburg territories—was elected emperor, Maria Theresa was mortified; that dignity, little more than titular by then, had in practice been hereditary in her family for 300 years. English: Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily (6 June 1772 – 13 April 1807) was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand IV & III of Naples and Sicily (later Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies) (1751-1825) and his wife, Maria Carolina of Austria (1752-1814). Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor 12 kreutzer 1800 20mm.jpg 4,230 × 2,168; 819 KB Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor 3 kreutzer 1800 30mm.jpg 5,772 × 3,174; 1.73 MB Franz 1792.JPG 1,174 × 881; 324 KB Upon her accession, the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48) erupted, challenging her inheritance of the Habsburg lands. Thus, the ancien régime that had come to an end in France in 1789 ended in Germany also. Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duchess of Tuscany as the spouse of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. Francis II (1768 - 1835?) He assumed the title of Emperor of Austria in response to the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French . Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor 12 kreutzer 1800 20mm.jpg 4,230 × 2,168; 819 KB Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor 3 kreutzer 1800 30mm.jpg 5,772 × … Last Roman Emperor and first Emperor of Austria (Francis I. August 1765, was first from On 6 January 1788, to Elisabeth of Württemberg(21 April 1767 – 18 February 1790). The year 1809 saw Austria’s fourth unsuccessful war against Napoleon, during which Francis, always distrustful of revolutionary or even popular movements, abandoned pro-Habsburg Tirolese rebels to France and Bavaria. Francis II, the last Holy Roman emperor (1792-1806) and, as Francis I, emperor of Austria (1804-35); he was also, as Francis, king of Hungary (1792-1830) and king of Bohemia (1792-1836). The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire occurred de facto on August 6, 1806, when Emperor Franz II abdicated his Imperial title and released all imperial states and officials from their oaths and obligations to the empire. On 15 September 1790, to his double first cousin Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies (6 June 1772 – 13 April 1807), daughter of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (both were grandchildren of Empress Maria Theresaand shared all of their other grandparents in common), with whom he had twelve children, of whom only seven reached adulthood. Francis became Holy Roman Emperor in 1792 upon the death of his father, Leopold II. Neither the peace of 1745 (by which Austria ceded Silesia to Prussia) nor the peace of 1748 (which ended Maria Theresa’s war with the rest of her enemies) ended her efforts to modernize the army. Upon the death of Charles Albert (1745), she secured for her husband, Francis, the imperial crown, which the law denied to women. Francis I (German: Franz Stefan; Italian: Francesco Stefano; English: Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions., though his wife … On 15 September 1790, to his double first cousin Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies (6 June 1772 – 13 April 1807), daughter of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies(both were grandchildren of Empress Maria Theresa and shared all of their other grandparents in common), with whom he had twelve children, of whom only seven reached adulthood. Emperor Francis died on 18 August 1765, while he and the court were in Innsbruck celebrating the wedding of his second son, Leopold. Thus in 1784, at the age of 16, he was sent to Vienna to be trained as a future king. Charles left the Habsburg state at the lowest point of its prestige, its coffers empty, its capital beset by unrest. Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Charles III), and King of Serbia (as Charles I) , Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711. He supported the conservative political system of Metternich in Germany and Europe after the Congress of Vienna. They had sixteen children who are named here: Charles I or Karl I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 1887 – 1 April 1922) was the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary (as Charles IV, Hungarian: IV. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) [1] was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. 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