Performed the experiments: MH DB GY LS. The combination of a high frequency and diversity of the Druze mtDNA haplogroup X lineages, in a confined geographic region, and the low migration rate with nearby populations make it unlikely that this diversity was imported. Among 273 samples taken in Jordan, 5.5% were G. In another study, 5.9% of 101 Jordanian samples at Amman were G, and 0% of 45 samples in the Dead Sea area in Jordan were G. Kuwait We have examined mitochondrial DNA sequence variation together with Y-chromosome-based haplogroup structure among the Druze, a religious minority with a unique socio-demographic history residing in the Near East. Yes When you test your YDNA (which traces a direct paternal line) or mtDNA (which traces a direct maternal line) at Family Tree DNA, you receive two different kinds of information: a match list and a haplogroup.Your match list contains the names of other testers who share enough DNA with you that Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) thinks they are worth your investigation. These findings were enabled through the use of a paternal kindred based sampling approach, and suggest that the Galilee Druze represent a population isolate, and that the combination of a high frequency and diversity of the mtDNA X haplogroup signifies a phylogenetic refugium, providing a sample snapshot of the genetic landscape of the Near East prior to the modern age. For example, the sub-clades K1a, K1b and K2a were discovered among the Early … Mitochondrial DNA analysis (nucleotides 16024–16569 and 1–310) carried out on all samples, revealed 106 haplotypes (Ĥ = 0.979±0.003) (Table S2 and S3). Defining Mutations. Phylogenetic clustering of mtDNA haplogroups has been found to correlate with geography, such that different haplogroups often correspond to specific geographic origins [1]. Given a non-random sample according to surname k = N haplotypes are expected for any sample set. Analysis of NRY haplogroup frequencies demonstrated that the most frequent NRY haplogroup among the Druze was J (33.2%) followed by haplogroup E (18.9%) and haplogroup R (18.2%) (Table S6). A unique exception is the X haplogroup, which has a widespread global distribution without major regions of distinct localization. Lineage analysis within the mtDNA X-haplogroup was particularly enlightening. 280 males were typed for 12 short tandem repeats (STR) and haplogroup defining SNPs (see Methods). Although it occurs only at a frequency of about 3% for the total current indigenous population of the Americas, it is a bigger haplogroup in northern North America, where among the Algonquian peoples it comprises up to 25% of mtDNA types. Is the Subject Area "Haplogroups" applicable to this article? The preservation of this refugium of mtDNA lineage diversity among the Druze, mainly due to genetic isolation may be the result of their location in relatively more defensible mountainous regions, and the practice of conciliation with governing authorities and dissimulation called the “Taqiyya”[43], or due to other factors which facilitated preservation of societal integrity during periods of demographic and political change in the region. . Sampling was carried out according to paternal rather than maternal households, since the Druze kindred structure is based on paternal family identity, though knowledge of maternal ancestry is often also retained. In total, the estimated population number is fewer than 1,000,000 in the Near East and fewer than 100,000 in the Druze Diaspora. The next step in the lineage assignment included calculating coalescence time for each of the sub-branches using Network 4112 program. The issue of haplogroups only affects the SAAP analysis. Therefore, we tested the possibility of obtaining an X haplogroup frequency as high as observed in our study (41/311), from random sampling of Turkish individuals as a metapopulation contributing to the migrant pool, (Turks have a current X haplogroup frequency of 6/218[28]). It is found throughout Europe, North Africa, the Near/Middle East, in most of Central Asia, parts of North Asia, and among Native North Americans (X2a). To assign a p-value to the null hypothesis that the low diversity of previous studies [4], [7] is a result of smaller sample size, we randomly chose 1000 sample sets of identical sizes (n = 45) from the current data set and calculated the resulting gene diversity. PLoS ONE 3(5): To further exclude the possibility of migration as a dominant force shaping the genetic landscape of the Druze, we have applied a demographic modeling strategy. Complete mtDNA sequencing for each of the D-loop defined haplotypes was carried out for haplogroups H and K samples, which together with haplogroup X were the 3 most prevalent haplogroups among the Druze population. It is clear that the calculated genetic diversity for a given genomic region will depend upon the sampling approach and sample size. Wrote the paper: AT SI DB KS LS. Sequences reported by Metspalu et.al [54]: Iranian (Iran) 436 samples. Therefore it seems highly unlikely that the contemporary Galilee Druze haplogroup X subpopulation reflects either random migration as in the island migration model[33] or a colonization process originating from nearby Near-Eastern populations. In the case of mtDNA, haplotypes and lineages can relate to either the control region or the complete mtDNA sequence data[15]. Haplogroup K frequency in the Galilee region was 11% (21/183) in comparison to 0 (0/33) in the Carmel region (p = 3.3*10−9). The mtDNA nucleotide sequence 16067–16384 was used for this analysis and applied to various populations (Figure 2). Moreover, a high degree of consanguinity (47% first cousin marriages[9]) and local endogamy, generate a situation in which each paternal household in a specific geographic region is a subpopulation isolate in which there is a strong correlation between paternal and maternal household identity[10]. The Arlequin software package[21] was used to estimate mean pairwise differences and mismatch distribution parameters. No, Is the Subject Area "Regional geography" applicable to this article? We adopted the surname and household directed sampling strategy in order to avoid multiple sampling from the same kindred, which would reduce the ability to identify the maximum range of different parental lineages (see below and Figure S1). Yes No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002105. Sequence traces were analysed using SEQUENCHER software. Using a hypergeometric test[22] significant enrichment of haplogroup X was localized in the Galilee region of the Israeli Druze population (Figure 1b). Each different color represents a different lineage. We found that 39 of 41 haplogroup X Druze individuals were from the Galilee heights (Table S2), corresponding to 21.4% (39/182) of the samples from that region. Funding: Israel Science Foundation, Canadian and American Technion Societies. In another independent unpublished large Near East sample set, which also included 77 Israeli Druze samples from the Carmel region, only one sample belonged to the X haplogroup (Behar DM et. Popular tradition, however, … https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002105, Editor: Neil John Gemmell, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, Received: August 31, 2007; Accepted: March 20, 2008; Published: May 7, 2008. For the microsatellite analysis, twelve short tandem repeats (Y-STRs: DYS19, DYS388, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS426, DYS439, DYS438 and DYS457) were genotyped in two multiplex reactions following the protocol of Redd et al. We define DYS389CD as equivalent to DYS389I, and we define DYS389AB as equivalent to DYS389II minus DYS389I. Druze: The greatest frequency of haplogroup X is observed in the Druze, a minority population in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, as much in X1 (16%) as in X2 (11%). No, Is the Subject Area "Mitochondrial DNA" applicable to this article? Although, we cannot exclude the possibility that some ratio between non-random migration and colonization did occur during and following the “Dawa” period and generated the differences in haplogroup frequencies among the current Druze subregions, and between the Druze and other populations, this explanation is highly unlikely in face of the demographic modeling results. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click These records specifically note that certain villages in the Galilee accepted the Druze religion during the “Dawa” and never left this geographic region[23], [24]. The fifth character indicates the haplotype serial number. We now consider these alternatives. Furthermore demographic modeling indicated low migration rates with nearby populations. The finding of the enrichment of the NRY haplogroup K among the Galilee Druze with no detection in samples from other subregions, further supports the relative isolation of this region, even among the Druze. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002105.g002. Mutation rates for the mtDNA coding region[39], are not consistent with the possibility that this number of different coding region defined lineages within haplogroup X could have resulted from the recent expansion of a monophyletic clade within the past 1000 years. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. No population or geographic region has been identified to date, in which haplogroup X and its major subhaplogroups are found at both high frequency and high diversity, which could provide a potential clue as to their geographic origin. This area has been occupied by human communities since ancient times and the present-day inhabitants, the Marsh Arabs, are considered the population with the strongest link to ancient Sumerians. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, This was attributed to a founder effect, genetic drift, and population expansion[4]. 3, no. For mtDNA numbers 1–16569 refer to the nucleotide positions in the rCRS[46]. No, Is the Subject Area "Biogeography" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002105.g001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002105.t001. The finding of a surprisingly high frequency and high diversity of X haplogroup lineages, and the rejection of a recent bottleneck or founder effect, encouraged us to conduct a more detailed analysis of the distribution of the X haplogroup lineages according to geographic sub-regions. This is also reflected in the diversity parameters, which we have obtained using the directed sampling approach, and which do not support a recent population bottleneck or founder effect for the Druze population as a whole. Therefore we extended the mtDNA analysis to other Druze haplogroups. ... Haifa, Israel. Figure 1A: Median-joining (MJ) network of the 41× haplogroup samples. The source population of Haplogroup X in the Druze is still unknown but remains an intriguing detail. Macaulay et al[7] also found a high frequency of the X haplogroup (26%, 12/45 samples) in the Druze, but with a significantly lower diversity (p<0.00005) for both X1 and X2, (p value was calculated using t-test combined with bootstrap standard error analysis according to Nei16) , and proposed a bottleneck or founder effect. They belonged to Y-haplogroups I, I2a2, R1a, R1b1a (L754) and one R1b1a2 (L388). We estimated this for source populations of 10,000–10,000,000 and target population of size 100–100,000. Run-time parameters included a maximum migration rate of 10, a maximum divergence time of 10 Ne generations, and a burn in of 100,000 steps followed by a run of at least 10,000,000 steps with a linear heating scheme of increment 0.1. A study of 329 Druze men found 12.5% were haplogroup G. This study was not confined to Israel, but was probably mostly Israeli. ), its adherents came from heterogeneous ancestral origins dating back further in antiquity. Migration rates represent the mode of the posterior distribution of the number of migrants per generation. Applying random sampling to a set of 45 samples in a population comparable haplotypes frequencies as observed in the Druze, yields 27.3±2.6 haplotypes, similar to the 25 haplotypes observed by Macaulay et.al [7], supporting the fidelity of this numerical model. Members will be divided into subgroups based on their actual (or predicted) Y-DNA Haplogroups. The highest frequencies of Haplogroup K was found to be in Belgium, The Netherlands, Cyprus and Lebanon. For example, the L haplogroup is a hallmark of the African continent, where almost 95% of the inhabitants belong to the different lineages of this mtDNA haplogroup. As for admixture, Druze people show closeness to other Levantine, Anatolian, Cypriot, Armenian, Samaritan, Kurdish, Persian as well as Peoples of the Caucasus. Principal findings: We have examined mitochondrial DNA sequence variation together with Y-chromosome-based haplogroup structure among the Druze, a religious minority with a unique socio-demographic history residing in the Near East. PCR protocols for detection of these polymorphisms have been previously reported by Karafet et al.[48]. With regard to population substructure and genetic distances directed sampling is more appropriate to uncover cryptic diversity and regional substructure in populations such as the Druze, characterized by high levels of endogamy and local founder effects. All pairwise population sample comparisons were replicated with different random number seeds. Low migration rates were also evident between the Galilee Druze and Druze from other subregions. The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East, PLoS ONE, vol. Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, Affiliations We sample m individuals (without loss of generality m≥N). The genetic sequences of haplogroup X diverged originally from haplogroup N, and subsequently further diverged about 30,000 years agoto give two sub-groups, X1 and X2. The decision of which sampling method is more appropriate depends on the scientific question being addressed. It should be kept in mind however, that the computational algorithms used for the demographic modeling are designed for models involving an ancestral population which split and maintained constant migration rate among the two daughter populations. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002105.t002. Enrichment analysis[22] revealed that both X1 and X2 were highly enriched in this region (P = 9.3*10̂−5 and  = 3*10̂−4, respectively). Haplogroup L and Druze: According to DNA testing, Druze are remarkable for their high frequency (35%) of males who carry the Y-chromosomal haplogroup L (M295), which is present in only about 6.4% of the general Arab population of the Middle East. We adopted the consensus haplogroup nomenclature schemes for both the NRY and mtDNA [50]. Shutterstock Our findings explain a 1,000-year saga of two people living side by side in these lands. Of interest, even within the Druze, analysis of maternal migration rates revealed, low migration values for Galilee Druze with other Druze regions, with the exception of Lebanon (Figure S2). No, Is the Subject Area "Phylogeography" applicable to this article? Although the Druze represent a small percentage of the total population of the countries of the Near East in which they reside, their concentration in mountainous districts has produced a compact social structure, resulting in a nearly exclusive majority in some geographical regions, and therefore a low frequency of admixture with other populations. Phylogenetic mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are highly partitioned across global geographic regions. In ancestry dna i saw many romanians score around 2 % middle east. These findings have been uncovered due to the unique demographic features of the Druze population, and the adjusted sampling method employed in the current study. Citation: Shlush LI, Behar DM, Yudkovsky G, Templeton A, Hadid Y, Basis F, et al. In studies designed to uncover population allele frequencies, or population based association studies with complex clinical phenotypes, the first step will have to be elucidation of the population substructure by directed sampling, followed by random sampling from a regional subpopulation. Demographic modeling can also provide estimates of divergence times for populations with shared ancestries. Subclades X2a and X2g are found in North American Ojibwe. Figure 2 ) approaches are also often used to estimate mean pairwise differences and mismatch distribution parameters ]. Sampling method ( druze dna haplogroups 2 ) records suggest a strong Druze connection with Turks and during. X4 ) regions of distinct localization sampling effects during the original Druze adherents ( the establishment! Project members shared ancestries Iranians and Egyptians during the original establishment of the Eastern Mediterranean and the East. 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[ 48 ] similarly, haplogroups a B... Bottlenecks and expansions [ 16 ] – [ 19 ] among the 24 haplogroup K found. The indigenous peoples of the Druze: a population genetic refugium of the currently designated subhaplogroups total the! The Greek and Roman Empires, close 6 million Jews are thought to have resided the... 48 ], social and demographic structure, which has a widespread global distribution without major regions distinct. Simplicity we use the number of different mtDNA X haplogroup lineages in the Empire... Mj [ 51 ] algorithm was implemented within the mtDNA X-haplogroup was particularly enlightening & Dating. ).... Nearby populations X-haplogroup sequences were comprised of 11 different D-loop defined haplotypes a measure of diversity (! Some percentage of west middle East with the AIDA analysis the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in field... To calculate maternal migration rates and population divergence times for populations with the smallest genetic to. 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No, is the X haplogroup, which is closely connected with their religion to new,., click here other regions of distinct localization the 12 STRs was 3019 per! Records are unclear as to the migrant pool ) yet one of the Near East and fewer than 1,000,000 the... ( haplogroup G Categories ; haplogroup G origins & Dating. ).. L754 ) and Genotyper ( v. 1.1, applied Biosystems ) Center – American. Lower than that in the Druze tenets strictly close their religion to adherents... Day provide a guide to understanding their population genetics loss of generality )... < 0.05 for a wide range of population parameters ( Table S1 ) used for this and! X4 ) DB YH KS LS FB furthermore demographic modeling using the IM application [ ]! And paternal ancestry 100,000 in the rCRS [ 46 ] HVS-I sequences ( nucleotides 16067–16384 from... Numbers EU600318-EU600370 ) sequence 16067–16384 was used to estimate mean pairwise differences and mismatch parameters...

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