), Cognition, education, and multimedia: Exploring ideas in high technology (pp. And in restructured contexts, for various purposes, and from different conceptual perspectives. Cognitive flexibility is the ability to revise your plans in the face of obstacles, setbacks, new information, or mistakes. 2003). When students are working through problem-solving activities they might have to apply multiple concepts or ways of thinking to find a solution. Cognitive flexibility theory is especially formulated to support the use of interactive technology (e.g., videodisc, hypertext). Cognitive flexibility, constructivism, and hypertext: Random access instruction for advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains. In essence, it’s a theory that strives to determine how the human mind can obtain and manage knowledge and how it restructures our existing knowledge base, based on the new information received. & Jehng, J. C. (1990). CF is sometimes referred to as task switching, but don’t get this confused with multitasking (which, as it’s branded, doesn’t actually exist). Cognitive flexibility and hypertext: Theory and technology for the nonlinear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter. (Sprio, Feltovich, Jacobson & Coulson, 1991). Spiro, R. J. Information and translations of Cognitive flexibility in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Further down Spiro (1992) argue that "The computer is ideally suited, by virtue of the flexibility it can provide, for fostering cognitive flexibility. The Role of Learning Tasks on Attitude Change Using Cognitive Flexibility Hypertext Systems, Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13 (4) 507-526. The cognitive flexibility theory intends to foster the learners' ability to spontaneously reconstruct their … A vital demand made by the Cognitive Flexibility Theory is to reuse educational material at different times. Non-Trivial Constructivisms encompass a range of learning theories that invoke a “learning as construing” – vs. a “learning as constructing” – metaphor. The goal is for the learner to understand the interconnection of domain concepts and to avoid "oversimplification" and "rigid" thinking regarding the content area. Moreover, it refers to simultaneously considering multiple aspects of thought at once, whether they be two aspects of a specific object, or many aspects of a complex situation. Cognitive Flexibility theory and education, Cognitive Flexibility Theory and Educational Technology, “Cognitive flexibility theory suggests that learners grasp the nature of complexity more readily by being presented with multiple representations of the same information in different contexts. Cognitive Flexibility Theory is a prescriptive instructional design theory which suggests that non-linear learning environments such as hypertext or hypermedia support complex learning and avoidance of oversimplification in learning. Students are constantly switching gears, moving from science to English, to recess, and so on throughout the day. In short, cognitive flexibility skills allow … The program provides a number of different clinical cases which students must diagnose and treat using various sources of information available (including advice from experts). Its primary applications have been literary comprehension, history, biology and medicine. Different interactive exercises help us improve our cognitive flexibility. Central to its argument is the claim that most of the variance on theory-of-mind tasks can be attributed to the development of flexible perspective taking. Cognitive flexibility is strengthened when your brain has more neural pathways and connections. Knowledge representation, content specification, and the development of skill in situation-specific knowledge assembly: Some constructvist issues as they relate to cognitive flexibility theory and hypertext. The Cognitive Flexibility Theory was introduced by Spiro and Jehng in 1990. “Cognitive flexibility theory suggests that learners grasp the nature of complexity more readily by being presented with multiple representations of the same information in different contexts. Cognitive flexibility can be seen from a variety of viewpoints. The goal is for the learner to understand the interconnection of domain concepts and to avoid "oversimplification" and "rigid" thinking regarding the content area. [.... ] Cognitive flexibility … It is the mind’s ability to process new or changing information and the flexibility to change thinking or action to accommodate updated information(Bilgin, 2009, Bock, 2009). Developed in late 80's by Dr. Rand Spiro (educational psychologist @ Michigan State University) What is it? Cognitive flexibility is an important skill for children to learn because it is naturally built into their school day. Cognitive flexibility can be seen from a variety of viewpoints. The cognitive flexibility theory (Spiro et al., 2003) suggests that peoples' fundamental beliefs and knowledge play an important role in shaping their behavior and determining the cognitive resources they access to solve problems. A synthesized research definition of cognitive flexibility is a switch in thinking, whether that is specifically based on a switch in rules or broadly based on a need to switch one's previous beliefs or thoughts to new situations. This chapter examines the labeling function of language, in this case as an aid to cognitive flexibility. By seeing multiple representations of the same phenomenon learners develop the mental scaffolding necessary for considering novel applications within the knowledge domain. 1. The construing–constructing distinction is critical, and it became an issue because the French verb construire can be translated as either “to construe” (i.e., to integrate elements to make sense of) or “to construct” (i.e., to build something). In particular, multidimensional and nonlinear hypertext systems, if appropriately designed to take into account all of the considerations discussed above, have the power to convey ill-structured aspects of knowledge domains and to promote features of cognitive flexibility in ways that traditional learning environments (textbooks, lectures, computer-based drill) could not (although such traditional media can be very successful in other contexts or for other purposes). Knowledge is … repertoire of established facts, Knowing is … flexible application of understandings, Learner is … a meaning-maker (individual). Research on the Cognitive Flexibility Theory … Graddy, Duane B. Cognitive Flexibility Theory as a Pedagogy for Web-Based Course Design. In other words, learners must be flexible in their understanding of a topic to apply important concepts.”. This cognitive theory of learning is systematically applied to an instructional theory, Random Access Instruction, which in turn guides the design of nonlinear computer learning environments we refer to as, http://www.ipfw.edu/as/tohe/2001/Papers/graddy/graddy.htm, http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/mediawiki/index.php?title=Cognitive_flexibility_theory&oldid=21967. Various thematic elements can criss-cross numerous cases that seem quite dissimilar in an overt context but add to the learner\u2019s cognitive development.”, “maintains that instruction in complex, ill-structured domains must allow the learner to "crisscross" the domain knowledge by comparing and contrasting information gained from different perspectives and themes pertinent to the domain. Cognitive flexibility resides at the intersection of awareness, adaptability and confidence. In animal models, cognitive flexibility generally refers to the ability to switch a behavioral response according to the context of a situation (Scott, 1962 ). Jonassen, Ambruso & Olesen (1992) describe an application of cognitive flexibility theory to the design of a hypertext program on transfusion medicine. It reinterprets the relation between language and theory of mind in terms of language-related effects on cognitive flexibility. 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